How the Internet Works


What is Google? 

Google is a search engine used to obtain information. They use their data for specified information that you look up into their keyword search. Google is just one search engine out of many such as Bing, DuckDuckGo. It’s the most common though with over 3.5 billion searches every day.

How a Google search works?

  • Crawling and indexing
  • Search Algorithms
  • Useful responses

Crawling and indexing: 

  • Google search engine consists of automated programs called spiders.
  • Spiders discover new pages to be added to Google’s Index of web pages.
  • Google will then assign the page a relevancy score. So if your score is higher the higher up your page will be ranked higher on search results.

Search Algorithms:

  • Uses steps as simple as interpreting spelling mistakes, and extends to trying to understand things as simple as just the search you’ve entered. They have a synonym search that looks at words even if they have multiple definitions to understand what they mean. They also look at location, past search history, and search setting affect your search.
  • Google also tries to understand what category of information you are looking for. Is it a very specific search or a broad query? It looks for words such as “review” or “pictures” or “opening hours” that indicate a specific information and bases the search off of those keywords.

Useful responses:

  • Google’s testing shows that users want quick results. They have made a lot of progress on delivering you the most relevant answers, faster and in formats that are most helpful to the type of information you are seeking.
  • For example, If you are searching for the weather, you most likely want the weather forecast on the results page, not just links to weather sites. Or searching for the results of a sports game.

Search Engine Optimization:

  • Looks at webpages and the amount of keywords that it has and ranks the pages based off of that. It also looks for backdoors and how many other pages link directly to your page.
  • Such things as Black Hat SEO that is a toxic trait that makes it so that pages get spammed with keywords.



What is Twitter?

Twitter is a social media platform that allows users to connect, share, and comment on others thoughts. The posts are known as tweets and these tweets have a maximum of 280 characters, so they are short. Roughly 400 milion tweets are sent out each day!


  • Home Page and Feed
  • Tweeting, Retweeting, and Commenting
  • Instant Messaging
  • Search Bar and Trending Tweets
  • Notifications
  • Likes

Technical Architecture Behind Twitter:

  • Uses open source softwares such as Hadoop, FlockDB, Blobstore, and SQL (such as MySQL).
  • Manhattan is Twitter’s own storage software which was created as the company became larger.
  • These softwares all revolve around the structuring and storing of data.

Ultimately data is stored and retrieved through the various technologies from servers across the world.

How The Internet Works With Twitter

The Internet is the global network that allows for the exchange of data and content across twitters technology infrastructure. This allows users to complete various actions on the application with users across the world since they are connected through the Internet.




What is Facebook?

Facebook is a popular social network site where the user can post comments, share posts, post pictures, message others, watch videos, and even play games


Facebook was created on febuary 4th, 2004. It was founded by Mark Zuckerberg and Aduardo Saverin. They both were students at Harvard at the time of the creation of the site. The original name for the site was The Facebook. Orignally intended for only Harvard students but, with a large demand for the site it grew into a site for everyone.


  • Home Page
  • Profile
  • Facebook Watch
  • News Feed
  • Group Pages
  • Market
  • Messaging

How Things Are Sorted On Your News Feed:

Facebook uses a news feed algorithm to organize posts from people you are friends with, pages you follow, and things that you have liked. The algorithm looks at a large variety of data it has collected on you to place scores on different posts and organizes the posts according to the score it has recieved.


Facebook uses multiple scripts in the coding of their websites.

  • C++
  • Java
  • Python
  • Ruby


  • Facebook created their own script called Thrift, to take all of the other scripts and translate them into one script for the other servers/ computers to easily understand.

Tiers of x86 servers

Top Tier

Made up of the Web servers that create the Web pages that users see, most with eight cores running 64-bit Linux and Apache.

Middle Tiers

Consists of caching servers.    A dedicated network server or service acting as a server that saves Web pages or other Internet content locally. By placing previously requested information in temporary storage, or cache, a cache server both speeds up access to data and reduces demand on an enterprise’s bandwidth.

Bottom Tiers

Consists of eight-core Linux servers running MySQL, an open-source database server application.

  • It is estimated that Facebook has about 800 such servers distributing about 40 terabytes of user data.
  • Even 800 database servers can’t serve up all the needed data: Facebook receives 15 million requests per second for both data and connections.

News Feed Algorithm

It scans and collects everything posted in the past week by each of your friends, everyone you follow, each group you belong to, and every Facebook page you’ve liked.






What is Instagram?

Instagram is a mobile networking application that can be downloaded on any device from a tablet, computer, smartphone, etc. It lets you capture and edit photos/videos and allows you to share them with your friends and with variety of other social media websites, such as Facebook and Twitter. It is also used for businesses to advertise, as users will see ads throughout their feed.


The order of the posts in your feed are based on this information…

o   The person has engaged with your content a lot recently

o   The person has liked or / and commented on your post a lot

o   The person has saved the post / saved previous posts of yours

  • You have liked the persons content consistently (Strong factor)
  • You have tagged the person in your post or previous posts
  • The person has tagged you in his/her previous posts
  • You follow the person (Main deciding factor)

o   (Hence Instagram thinks that you find this person relevant enough to care about the information that he/she posts, hence placing this person at #1)

  • When you followed the person (Given you follow that person)


If you do not follow the account then Instagram will order the list of likers as follows;

  • Size of the account (How many followers)
  • Time when the post was liked
  • Account is verified (Blue tick)


Software and “secret” functions:

  • Uses Foursquare API technology to provide named location tagging which allows your followers to see where you are in certain pictures or videos that you post


  • You see ads based on posts you like, people you follow, third party sites you’ve recently or tend to look at a lot and it takes information from their parent site (Facebook) to see what your interests are on there.


  • IGTV is a vertical video application launched by Instagram that allows uploads of up to 10 minutes in length with a file size of up to 650 MB and allows verified and popular users to upload videos of up to 60 minutes in length.


  • The two names listed before the number of likes you received are the people who liked your Instagram photo that you have interacted with most on the app. These are the Instagram users that you search for, like and comment on their Instagram photos, or direct message with. If you click to see all of the users who liked your photo, they will appear in descending order of people you interact with most often.



  • Instagram Direct, a feature that lets users interact through private messaging.


  • Instagram Stories allow users to take photos, add effects and layers, the ability to record live video and add them all to their Instagram stories. This is similar to what you see on Snapchat. Images uploaded to a user’s story expire after 24 hours.


  • “carousel ads” are a feature used as a way for brands to upload up to five images or videos that users can swipe through, with options at the end for additional content or a visit to the brand’s website.